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        Basic conditions and methods for cavity EDM
        Release time:2019-05-27 15:35:02 | Browse times:

        What are the basic conditions and methods of cavity EDM?
         1) EDM must use pulse power to provide instantaneous pulse discharge. In order to ensure that the heat generated by the spark discharge does not diffuse out from the discharge point, an instantaneous high temperature in a very small range must be formed to locally melt or even vaporize the metal, and the pulse width should be less than 0.0013. After the pulse discharge, in order to allow the discharge medium to have enough time to restore the insulation state, so as to avoid causing the arc to continue to discharge, a certain pulse interval is required. In the EDM process, it must be a DC pulse power supply.
            2) Pulse discharge must have sufficient discharge energy, because EDM should locally melt and vaporize the metal. This energy should be large enough, otherwise the metal surface can only be heated.
            3) A certain discharge gap must be maintained between the tool electrode and the workpiece. If the gap is too large and the voltage between the poles cannot break through the interpolar medium, the spark discharge will not occur. If the gap is too small, it is easy to form a short circuit, and the spark discharge cannot be generated. Therefore, it must be maintained in the EDM process. Discharge gap.
            4) Spark discharge must be carried out in a liquid medium with certain insulation, such as kerosene, saponification liquid, deionized water, etc. The most used in production is kerosene. These liquid media not only facilitate pulsed spark discharge, but also eliminate the electrolytic corrosion products in the discharge gap and the cooling effect on the electrode surface. Kerosene also has the effect of preventing rust.
           (1) Electro-discharge machining method of cavity
        The EDM processing of the cavity mainly includes: single electrode translation method, multi-electrode replacement method and decomposition electrode processing method.
            1) Single electrode translation method. It is a coarse, medium, and finished machining of an unfinished cavity with an electrode. Since it requires only one electrode and can be mounted at a time to achieve an accuracy of ±0.05 mm, it is widely used in the processing of cavities. When processing, it firstly uses the low-loss, high-productivity coarse gauge to process, and then uses the translational clamp as the plane circular motion to perform the profile processing on the side, and changes the electrical gauge step by step in the order of coarse, medium and fine. At the same time, the amount of translation of the electrode is sequentially increased to compensate for the difference between the discharge gap and the surface microscopic flatness between the two processing standards before and after, thereby completing the processing of the entire cavity. The disadvantage of the single-electrode translation method is that it is difficult to obtain a high-precision cavity, and in particular, it is difficult to process a clear-edged, clear-angled cavity, and it is also prone to surface cracking and surface roughness.
           2) Multi-electrode replacement method. It uses a plurality of electrodes to be sequentially replaced to process the same cavity, and each electrode must be erased from the previous standard discharge. Generally, two electrodes are used for roughing and finishing, which can meet the requirements. When the precision is high, multiple electrodes can be processed. The cavity processed by this method has high precision, and is especially suitable for cavity processing with sharp corners and narrow slits, but it requires a plurality of electrodes, and each electrode requires good consistency, and has high positioning accuracy when replacing electrodes.
           3) Decomposition electrode method. It is a comprehensive utilization of the above two methods. Before processing, according to the geometry of the cavity, the cavity is decomposed into a main cavity and a sub-cavity. The main cavity is processed first, and then the sub-cavity electrode is used to process sharp corners, narrow slits and the like. This method is advantageous for improving the processing speed and quality because it is processed separately. It also simplifies electrode fabrication and facilitates electrode repair. However, precise positioning when replacing the electrodes is not easy.

         

         
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